Exposure of the U.S. Population from Diagnostic Medical by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

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Additional resources for Exposure of the U.S. Population from Diagnostic Medical Radiation: Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP report)

Example text

Data concerning trends and variability of exposures in the United States are available from the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray W d s (NEXT)program (Johnson and Goetz, 1986). 1 and indicate a rathex wide distribution of such exposures. Similar distributions of exposure have been found in England (Shrimpton et d , 1986) and Italy (Padovani et ab, 1987). With the advent of rare earth mand faster meen-fihn combhations, one might exp& that the mean expmre at skin entrance would be decreasing; However, the NEXT data suggest that,in spite of technologi- 26 I 3.

3 NUMBER OF EXAMINATIONS 1 51 project was later expaded to indude a stratified sample of 26 hoepitals, a n d d a t a f r o m t b e s e h o s p i ~ ~ ~ ~ A u g u s t 1 9 7 7 ~ July 1978. ~dJohnson &so&&a (Johmmand Abemathyt 1983). In 1980 end 1981, the B m m of Radialogid Health, m m the Center for Devkea and I h W u g k d Health (CDRH), conducted a hospital--basedsurvqr, which was called tbe Radiation Expsience Data (RED 1) Study (FDA, 1986). Data for 1981 and 1982 are available £mm the CDRH study (RED 2) cited earlier.

M d e y and Zilkha (1984)discussed v a r i m methods to reduce ladiaton d o s e i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f i n ~ l e s i o n sthat amclinically followed by the use of computed tomography but they did not provide any quautitative dose reduction factor. McCunough (1980)suggested that the p e ~ farmanceof&(;T-be-edandcheckedindtoensurea typical level of performance and to provide a baseline value for a pragram of quality assurance. dhatioa of the x-ray beam to conform to the body portion of intenst is extmaely important in dose reduction.

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