Evolution and International Organization: Toward a New Level by V. Rittberger

By V. Rittberger

unlike the historical-descriptive or legalistic techniques nonetheless pervading the vast majority of guides on overseas association, has an implicit (empirical-) theoretical orientation. As a concomitant improvement, Yalem notes an expanding methodological 6 sophistication between a few scholars of overseas association. although, with the exception of a few favorable reviews at the evolving concept of foreign group formation, Yalem doesn't assessment the contribution of the empirical-theory-cum­ method literature to the research of foreign association. extra lately, Riggs and his affiliates (1970) and Alger (1960-70; 1970) have taken it upon themselves to do exactly this. The research of the influence of bthavioralism at the research of the United countries process through Robert Riggs and his affiliates is a slightly devastating indictment. even though demonstrating a priority to provide balanced and certified conclusions from their pemsal of the suitable literature, they summarize their review within the following assertion: Behavioral study has most likely been the main disappointing within the sector of its imperative main issue, that of theory-building. The grand theories are usually heuristic in nature, divorced from the basic facts base; and the best-supported proposi­ tions have the natrowest theoretical value. regardless of its goals and pretensions, the process has no longer but produced a coherent set of explanatory propositions to carry order or clinical exactness to the research of overseas association or any sizeable section of it (Riggs et al. , 1970: 230).

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Extra resources for Evolution and International Organization: Toward a New Level of Sociopolitical Integration

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N. N. ) overall upward trend emerges strongly, the pattern itself is characterized by a sequence of surges and leveling-off phases. By comparison, the growth pattern displaye,d by the Wallace-Singer data on IGO's is much smoother in its upward movement (cf. 955 1960 Fig. 1). 2). One reason for the greater smoodmess of the curve representing the growth of IGO's may be that the mere formation or continuation of an IGO does not require much of a political commitment whereas the opposite is true for expanding the opera- The International Organization Level of Integration 10,000 5,000 .

Those developed by the 19th-century evolutionists, cf Appelbaum (1970: 17-30) and Lenski (1970: II9-I2o). 18 Cf, however, Ribeiro (1968: 13-18 and passim) for a recent example of an ambiguous and non-parsimonious taxonomy. 3 percent of the total energy consumption; however, it is estimated that by the year 2000 the share of nuclear energy will rise to about 20 percent (Starr, 1971: 39). S. seems excessively small, it should be recalled that the data mentioned above cover only the civilian uses of nuclear energy.

A third proposition concerns the integrative effectiveness of the international organization level; here, we would expect that the danger to the survival and reproduction of societies and individuals emanating from the interactions of nation states would be reduced as the international organization level of integration emerges more strongly. The emergent strength of international organization can be gauged by analyzing the rise of structural mechanisms of integration operative at this level. We will identify three such mechanisms as constitutive of the stage of sociopolitical organization we have termed here the 'international organization level of integration': (I) supranational bureaucracies and their interpenetration with national bureaucracies; (2) transnational sodalities; and (3) the international division oflabor.

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