By W. Rodi and N. Fueyo (Eds.)
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Additional info for Engineering Turbulence Modelling and Experiments 5. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Engineering Turbulence Modelling and Measurements Mallorca, Spain, 16–18 September, 2002
CLOSING REMARKS In many respects it is fairly amazing that turbomachinery designers can be so successful in their use of CFD without more adequate turbulence models. Some possible reasons for this were given above. An additional explanation is that many sources of loss are not dependant on small details of the flow but rather on the mixing out of relatively large scale non-imiformities, such as tip clearance vortices, as explained by Denton (1993). Another possible explanation is given by Ciunpsty (1989) (on pages 338-339) where he shows that the skin friction force is largely neghgible compared to the blade forces in the end-wall regions of axial compressors, so that the prediction of shear stress may not be so critical.
However, in cases where compressible unsteady flows occur, such as in extemal vehicle aerodynamics or engine combustion, further improvement of turbulence modelling is needed. There has been no significant progress in turbulence models (k 8 model is still the most popular one), but a lot of improvement conceming many physical models 35 (such as the spray and the combustion). Anyway, the first thing to do is to have a good representation of the velocity field, which implies good turbulence modelling before adding new physical models.
CFD models are under development. • In between, there are many fields of vehicle engineering problems, where CFD simulations are mature enough to be used in development, with some experimental validation. Simulation tools in external aerodynamics field, even though intensively used in vehicle development, still need more prediction and tuning Figure 1 shows the various domains and types of flows that one can meet in a vehicle from external aerodynamics up to passenger compartment and cockpit, going by underhood and power train.