Encyclopedia of War Crimes And Genocide (Facts on File by Leslie Alan Horvitz

By Leslie Alan Horvitz

This A-to-Z encyclopaedia examines the whole background of crimes opposed to humanity, in the course of either wartime and peacetime. With greater than 450 entries, the encyclopaedia covers a variety of correct subject matters: human rights, struggle criminals, trials of warfare crimes, examples of genocide, foreign companies and overseas legislation pertaining to struggle crimes, and lots of extra. additionally incorporated is a major assets part with files which are important to figuring out this topic. The assurance contains: Amnesty foreign; Klaus Barbie; Geneva Conventions; Saddam Hussein; Kosovo; North Korea; Pol Pot; Rwanda; Shining course; Taliban; Desmond Tutu; and Simon Wiesenthal.

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One debate has focused on the issue of “contingency”—in essence a chicken-or-egg question. Did the Young Turks embark on a program of genocide as a response to specific circumstances of the First World War, or did the war simply give a convenient cover to pursue a ruthless policy that had been planned all along? A second debate focuses on the political ambitions of the Young Turks. Historian Bernard Lewis has characterized the events of 1915 as “a desperate struggle between two nations for the possession of a single homeland,” a view that is sharply disputed by Ronald Grigor Suny, professor of political science at the University of Chicago.

But these massacres were only a prelude to a genocidal program that would be carried out on a much broader scale. The reign of the sultans barely survived the arrival of the new century: An uprising by a core group of officers and civilian sympathizers known as the Young Turks led to the deposition of Abdul Hamid and the restoration of Par- 25 liament. But the Young Turks’ reformist instincts didn’t extend to their treatment of the Armenians. Within a few years of assuming power, they began to respond to political and ethnic dissidence with terror and intimidation.

In effect it sets out provisions for internal conflict that are also intended to apply to conflicts between states. One provision declares that people who are not combatants—including any opponents who have laid down their arms or have been rendered unable to fight because of illness—must be treated humanely and without discrimination based on sex, race, color, religion, or faith. Wounded opponents are to receive proper medical care. According to the article, rebels who are taken prisoner have the right to be seen by representatives of the INTERNATIONAL C OMMITTEE OF THE R ED C ROSS (ICRC) or other international humanitarian organizations, just as other PRISONERS OF WAR do.

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