Embedded systems : ARM programming and optimization by Jason D. Bakos

By Jason D. Bakos

Embedded structures: ARM Programming and Optimization combines an exploration of the ARM structure with an exam of the amenities provided by way of the Linux working approach to provide an explanation for how a number of beneficial properties of application layout can effect processor functionality. It demonstrates equipment through which a programmer can optimize software code in a manner that doesn't influence its habit yet improves its functionality. numerous functions, together with photograph modifications, fractal new release, photograph convolution, and desktop imaginative and prescient projects, are used to explain and display those equipment. From this, the reader will achieve perception into desktop structure and alertness layout, in addition to achieve useful wisdom within the region of embedded software program layout for contemporary embedded systems.

  • Covers 3 ARM guide set architectures, the ARMv6 and ARMv7-A, in addition to 3 ARM cores, the ARM11 at the Raspberry Pi, Cortex-A9 at the Xilinx Zynq 7020, and Cortex-A15 at the NVIDIA Tegra K1
  • Describes the best way to absolutely leverage the amenities provided via the Linux working approach, together with the Linux GCC compiler toolchain and debug instruments, functionality tracking help, OpenMP multicore runtime surroundings, video body buffer, and video seize capabilities
  • Designed to accompany and paintings with many of the inexpensive Linux/ARM embedded improvement forums presently available

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This chapter describes the use of performance counters to keep track of cycles, instructions, cache references, and cache misses. The cycle count will provide information about execution time, the ratio of instructions to cycles will provide CPI, and the ratio of cache misses to references will provide cache miss rate. Note that the total CPI includes the stall cycles from branches, data dependencies, and cache misses, although there is no way to discriminate each type of stall. There is still enough information to make optimization decisions, and understand how our code transformations affect performance.

Count stalls as instructions. 4. Change the following C code to eliminate any unnecessary if-statements that would be encountered during runtime: if ((a[i]<0) jj (a[i]>510)) { if (a[i]550) sum5sum+1; if (a[i]>20) sum5sum+2; } else { if (a[i]555) sum5sum+4; } 5. Translate the following C function to ARM assembly: int reorder (int a) { return (a<<24) j ((a<<16) & 0xFF00) j ((a>>16) & 0xFF0000) j ((a>>24) & 0xFF); } 6. Write a short sequence of ARM instructions that add two 128-bit integers. What is the minimal number of instructions required?

Loop Transformations Cache performance is associated with a program’s memory access locality, but in some cases the locality can be improved without changing the functionality of the program. This usually involves transforming the structure of loops, such as in loop tiling, where the programmer adds additional levels of loops to change the order in which program data is accessed. 3. Heterogeneous Computing Many embedded systems, and even systems-on-a-chip, include integrated coprocessors such as Graphical Processor Units, Digital Signal Processors, or Field Programmable Gate Arrays that can perform specific types of computations faster than the general purpose processors.

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