By Olga Linares
Olga Linares deals a reinterpretation of the vintage rank-societies of the important Panamanian provinces in accordance with archaeological, ecological, iconographic, ethnohistoric, and ethnographic proof, and concludes that the paintings variety of this quarter used animal motifs as a metaphor in expressing the features of aggression and hostility attribute of social and political existence within the vital provinces.
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Extra resources for Ecology and the arts in ancient Panama: On the development of social rank and symbolism in the central provinces (Studies in pre-Colombian art and archaeology)
224). This statement has again been shown by Cooke’s studies to be tionably yes, at the general level of meaning with mistaken. At least thirty-five sites which he and others which we are dealing. The polychrome styles of the surveyed in Coclé province, to the east of Ladd’s central provinces all through their evolution are unregion, have habitation refuse containing unmistak- like any style from elsewhere in Panama. Although able Period VII ceramics. D. pression of common values and a common way of 900 (see below).
Most of them lay parallel, east and west. The lower and middle levels were profusely covered with pottery vessels, mainly broken, those on the middle level being continuous with the pottery lining of the grave sides. The skeletons on these levels were also more lavishly furnished with gold ornaments; one of the eight large gold plaques accompanied one of the skeletons on the lower level. Most of the gold jewelry, however, was found with one skeleton on the middle level, evidently the chief occupant of the grave.
B. Chisel. c,d. Blades and/or projectile points. e. Arrow-shaft straightener. f. Stingray spines used for spear points. g . Spear points cut from the rostra1 spikes of the sawfish. h. Spearthrowers (atlatl), lengths 48 and 58 cm. L. (all except f after Lothrop 1937: Figs. 54b, 54e, 64i, 6oc, 63a, 65b-d, 66). existing in nothing like the numbers that could be expected had they been regularly used in everyday village activities. The thousands of weapons were mostly for hunting or, more likely, for waging war: projectile points, arrowheads and spearheads of stone, and many bundles of stingray spines (Fig.