By Ann Marie Clark
A small crew based Amnesty overseas in 1961 to translate human rights ideas into motion. Diplomacy of Conscience offers a wealthy account of ways the association pioneered a mix of renowned strain and specialist wisdom to improve international human rights. To an volume unequalled via predecessors and copied by way of successors, Amnesty foreign has hired all over the world exposure campaigns according to fact-finding and ethical strain to induce governments to enhance human rights practices. much less popular is Amnesty International's major effect on overseas legislations. It has helped forge the overseas community's repertoire of respectable responses to the main critical human rights violations, supplementing ethical main issue with services and conceptual vision.
Diplomacy of Conscience strains Amnesty International's efforts to reinforce either renowned human rights information and foreign legislation opposed to torture, disappearances, and political killings. Drawing on fundamental interviews and archival study, Ann Marie Clark posits that Amnesty International's strenuously cultivated objectivity gave the gang political independence and allowed it to be serious of all governments violating human rights. Its ability to enquire abuses and interpret them in line with foreign criteria helped it foster consistency and coherence in new human rights law.
Generalizing from this examine, Clark builds a thought of the independent function of nongovernmental actors within the emergence of overseas norms pitting ethical imperatives opposed to country sovereignty. Her paintings is of considerable old and theoretical relevance to these attracted to how norms take form in overseas society, in addition to someone learning the expanding visibility of nongovernmental companies at the foreign scene.
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Additional info for Diplomacy of Conscience: Amnesty International and Changing Human Rights Norms
8 The torture case thus provides us with an early view of phases in the emergence of international human rights norms, starting with Amnesty’s efforts to report on torture as practiced by governments. ” Torture in Greece, and the concurrent loss of political freedoms there after the coup, was particularly salient for onlookers in Europe and the West. Greece was a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a member of the Council of Europe, and an important strategic ally of the United States.
16 Amnesty International’s investigative team—two volunteer lawyers, Anthony Marreco and James Becket—set up a small ofﬁce in Athens for four weeks, to receive statements from the relatives of people who had been detained and former detainees themselves. The repeated accounts suggested a pattern of severe mistreatment by Greek authorities. 18 Amnesty International’s investigation of Greece served as a catalyst for further European governmental action. The Amnesty report’s documentation of torture substantiated less systematic press reports and prompted the Scandinavian governments to add charges of torture to the “Greek Case” in the Council of Europe.
Nongovernmental organizations’ consistent advocacy, investigation, and reporting on principled issues has been a major factor in the emergence of international norms on women, children, the environment, and other topics in addition to the problems detailed in the case studies. Amnesty’s growth from a tiny, mainly volunteer prisoner adoption group to a model for other citizenbased groups demonstrates the potential of nonstate actors to inﬂuence the morality of states. In the process, Amnesty’s example provides the basis for understanding how principles and moral suasion inﬂuence international politics.