Developing Insights in Cartilage Repair by Pieter J. Emans PhD, MD, Lars Peterson MD, PhD (auth.),

By Pieter J. Emans PhD, MD, Lars Peterson MD, PhD (auth.), Pieter J. Emans, Lars Peterson (eds.)

This accomplished e-book discusses cartilage fix and all its features. those elements range from uncomplicated insights in cartilage biology and regeneration through MRI, to result of present cartilage fix strategies and upcoming novel methods. primary cartilage biology is the subject lined in the first chapters of the booklet. those chapters not just offer an perception in fit, broken and regenerative cartilage but in addition describe advancements in gene treatment and techniques to reinforce chondrogenesis of stemcells and stop hypertophic differentiation. there's a large growth within the chances of MR imaging of either fit, broken and regenerative cartilage. those advancements not just allow higher tracking of cartilage fix yet can also resolve the pathophysiology of the improvement of cartilage defects. diverse cartilage fix innovations (e.g. allografts, autologous chondrocytes transplantation [ACT], microfracture), there technical facets (e.g. advancements in the direction of an overall arthroscopic approach), pitfalls, and results are suggested within the following chapters. In those chapters components vital for the result of cartilage fix resembling meniscal fix, sufferer elements are defined. eventually, an summary of novel cartilage fix options akin to minced cartilage, denovo cartilage and extra components are mentioned during this accomplished addition to the literature.

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46. Chu CR, Coutts RD, Yoshioka M, Harwood FL, Monosov AZ, Amiel D. Articular cartilage repair using allogeneic perichondrocyte-seeded biodegradable porous polylactic acid (PLA): a tissue-engineering study. J Biomed Mater Res. 1995;29(9):1147–54. 47. Elford PR, Graeber M, Ohtsu H, Aeberhard M, Legendre B, Wishart WL, et al. Induction of swelling, synovial hyperplasia and cartilage proteoglycan loss upon intra-articular injection of transforming growth factor beta-2 in the rabbit. Cytokine. 1992;4(3):232–8.

These successes validate the concept of using gene therapy for monogenetic, recessive diseases where a single, defined gene is defective. But it is difficult to apply to cartilage repair because its lack of a natural repair process is not due to a single, recessive gene and there is no obvious candidate, single therapeutic gene. For a very long time articular cartilage was thought of as a quiscent tissue with no possibility of regeneration after injury. The realization that cartilage is a metabolically active tissue, with various matrix components continually being turned over at different rates, has created the paradigm shift of using biological approaches to repair cartilage.

2011;365(25):2357–65. 3. Cavazzana-Calvo M, Payen E, Negre O, Wang G, Hehir K, Fusil F, et al. Transfusion independence and HMGA2 activation after gene therapy of human beta-thalassaemia. Nature. 2010;467(7313):318–22. 4. Simonelli F, Maguire AM, Testa F, Pierce EA, Mingozzi F, Bennicelli JL, et al. 5 years after vector administration. Mol Ther. 2010;18(3):643–50. 5. Stroes ES, Nierman MC, Meulenberg JJ, Franssen R, Twisk J, Henny CP, et al. Intramuscular administration of AAV1-lipoprotein lipase S447X lowers triglycerides in lipoprotein lipasedeficient patients.

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