By Anthony S. Travis (auth.), Anthony S. Travis, Harm G. Schröter, Ernst Homburg, Peter J. T. Morris (eds.)
The editors desire to thank the ecu technological know-how beginning for its aid of the programme at the Evolution of Chemistry in Europe, 1789-1939, in addition to for sponsoring the booklet of this quantity. throughout the subdivision of this initiative that offers particularly with chemical it's been attainable for historians of technology, know-how, company and economics to percentage frequently broadly differing viewpoints and enhance consensus throughout disciplinary and cultural limitations. The contents of this quantity are in keeping with the 3rd of 3 workshops that experience thought of the emergence of the trendy ecu chemical sooner than 1939, the 1st held in Liege (1994), the second one in Maastricht (1995), and the 3rd in Strasbourg (1996). All members and members are thanked for his or her participation in usually full of life and informative debates. The beneficiant hospitality of the eu technology starting place and its employees in Strasbourg is gratefully said. advent rising chemical wisdom and the advance of chemical undefined, and especially the interplay among them, provide wealthy fields of analysis for the historian. this is often mirrored within the contents of the 3 workshops facing the emergence of chemical held less than the aegis of the ecu technology Foundation's Evolution of Chemistry in Europe, 1789-1939, programme. the 1st workshop centred customarily on technological know-how for undefined, 1789- 1850, and the second one at the two-way site visitors among technology and undefined, 1850-1914. The 3rd workshop, facing the interval 1900-1939, covers comparable concerns, yet inside of various, and wider, contexts.
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Max Planck, Johanne5 Stark, and Richard WillsUltter protested their patriotism in civilian dress. L. Heilbron , The Dilemmas 0/ an Upright Man : Max Planck as Spokesman/or German Science (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986). 53 54 Sir William Osler, Science and War (Oxford, 1915), reviewed in Nature, 96 (16 December 1915),431. CHEMISTRY FOR KING AND KAISER 39 3. The third phase (mid-1916 - November 1917) On 1 July 1916, the British Army suffered more casualties than on any day before or since in British military history.
58 France contributed a small additional number, perhaps 200 in total. The opposing sides were thus not equally positioned, but neither was the picture one-sided. What made the difference by the end of J917, was the prospect of "chemical reinforcements" from the United States, which contributed perhaps 1,900 to chemical warfare, but which, including the munitions industries, could well have summoned as many as 2,500. 59 55 Calculations Irom published registers give 179 Fellows, 267 Associates and 165 Students, or 611 in total.
Even more significant, America's short war convinced the managements of Du Pont, Hercules and Atlas of the long term possibilities of an immensely profitable future. 8o 75 Wachtel. op. cit. (4), p. 3. , pp. M. Prentiss, Chemicals in War (New York, 1937). 77 Haber, Poisonous Cloud, op. cit. 117, 266. 78 Its facilities, including its power plant and dams, later became part of the Tennessee Valley Authority, and found their use in World War II. For the history of American munitions mobilization, see Benedict Crowell, America's Munitions, 1917-1918 (Washington, DC, 1920),2 vols.