By Paul Stull

A pragmatic advisor to simplified building surveying. the right way to divide land, use a transit and tape to discover a identified aspect, draw a correct survey map out of your box notes, use topographic surveys, and find out how to point and set grade. you are going to find out how to make a survey for any residential or advertisement lot, driveway, street, or bridge - together with the right way to determine cuts and fills and calculate excavation amounts. Use this advisor to make your individual surveys, or simply learn and be certain the accuracy of surveys made by way of others

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**Additional info for Construction surveying & layout**

**Example text**

Given R and I, find T: T = R × tan 1/2I. Given R and C, find D: Sin D = 1/2C/R. D = arcsin of sin D. Given C and D, find R: R = 1/2C/sin D. Given I, D, and C, find T: T = (C × tan 1/2I)/2sinD. Given I, T, and C, find D: Sin D = (C × tan 1/2I)/2T. If 100-foot chords are used: Sin D = 50/R; R = 50/sin D. Sin D = (50 × tan 1/2I)/T; T = (50 × tan 1/2I)/sin D. Remember that the number of chords in the length of a curve is N = 1/2l/D. If D is not evenly divisible into 1/2I, there will be a subchord, as mentioned above.

Given R and I, find T: T = R × tan 1/2I. Given R and C, find D: Sin D = 1/2C/R. D = arcsin of sin D. Given C and D, find R: R = 1/2C/sin D. Given I, D, and C, find T: T = (C × tan 1/2I)/2sinD. Given I, T, and C, find D: Sin D = (C × tan 1/2I)/2T. If 100-foot chords are used: Sin D = 50/R; R = 50/sin D. Sin D = (50 × tan 1/2I)/T; T = (50 × tan 1/2I)/sin D. Remember that the number of chords in the length of a curve is N = 1/2l/D. If D is not evenly divisible into 1/2I, there will be a subchord, as mentioned above.

The pier centers will lie on the bridge centerline. The piers stand at Stations 12 + 95 and 13 + 40. Station 13 + 85 is on the streamside face of the opposite wing abutment. Establish a baseline on each stream bank, one at Station 12 + 25 and one at Station 14 + 10. Set points 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 on the baselines, with the points at the ends of lines intersecting on the pier centers. Choose some standard of angle that gives you an easy computation, for instance, 45°. Because pier 1 stands at Stations 12 + 95, 70 feet from the 62 Construction Surveying & Layout baseline at Station 12 + 25, point 14 lies on the baseline 70 feet from the centerline.