CNC Programming Handbook (3rd Edition) by Peter Smid

By Peter Smid

Over its first variations, this best-selling publication has develop into the de facto common for education and reference fabric in any respect degrees of CNC programming. utilized in thousands of academic associations around the globe because the fundamental textual content for CNC classes, and used day-by-day via many in-field CNC programmers and laptop operators, this e-book actually defines CNC programming.
Written with cautious recognition to element, there aren't any compromises. some of the alterations during this new 3rd version are the direct results of reviews and proposals bought from many CNC execs within the box. This terribly complete paintings is still filled with over a thousand illustrations, tables, formulation, counsel, shortcuts, and sensible examples.

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It is common that many machines used in the shop have some special features. Should the CNC programmer be at least interested in the machine operation? Is it necessary for the programmer to know and understand all functions of the control system? There is only one answer to both questions - definitely yes. ZERO RETURN X Y Z OPTIONAL SINGLE STOP BLOCK ON ON CYCLE END ERRORS ALARM M00 M01 M30 4 BLOCK SKIP ON M-S-T LOCK ON Operation Panel Z-AXIS MACHINE NEGLECT LOCK ON ON DRY RUN ON POWER ON LUBE MANUAL AUTO ABSOLUTE POWER ON ON READY COOLANT FUNCTION ON OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF 90 100 110 120 70 130 140 60 50 150 40 160 30 170 20 180 190 10 200 0 RAPID MDI 150 125 100 80 60 40 30 20 15 10 5 0 MEM HANDLE HOME EDIT SELECT MODE Y Z X 4 SELECT AXIS 25 OFF ON 80 50 100 RAPID OVERRIDE % 200 250 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1200 1500 2000 4000 FEEDRATE % CW JOG mm/min EDIT KEY 70 F1 80 175 TAPE JOG AUTO STOP CCW SPINDLE 90 100 60 110 50 120 SPINDLE OVERRIDE % CYCLE START FEEDHOLD AUTO Figure 5-2 A typical operation panel of a CNC machining center - actual layout and features will vary on different models EMG STOP CONTROL SYSTEM Feature 21 Description ON / OFF switch Power and control switch for the main power and control unit Cycle Start Starts program execution or MDI command Emergency Stop Stops all machine activity and turns off power to the control unit Feedhold Temporarily stops motion of all axes Single Block Allows program run one block at a time Optional Stop Temporarily stops program execution (M01 required in program) Block Skip Ignores blocks preceded with a forward slash ( / ) in the program Dry Run Feature Description AUTO Mode Allows automatic operations MEMORY mode Allows program execution from memory of the CNC unit TAPE / EXT or DNC mode Allows program execution from an external device, such as a desktop computer (DNC) or a punched tape EDIT mode Allows changes to be made to a program stored in CNC memory MANUAL Mode Allows manual operations during setup JOG Mode Selects jog mode for setup RAPID Mode Selects rapid mode for setup Enables program testing at fast feedrates (without a mounted part) Memory Access Key (switch) to allow program editing Spindle Override Overrides programmed spindle speed, usually within 50-120% range Error Lights Red light indicating an error Feedrate Override Overrides programmed feedrate, usually within 0-200% range Chuck Clamp Shows current status of the chuck clamping (Outside / Inside clamping) Table Clamp Shows current status of table clamping Coolant Switch Coolant control ON / OFF / AUTO Gear Selection Shows current status of working gear range selection Spindle Rotation Indicates spindle rotation direction (clockwise or counterclockwise) Spindle Orientation Manual orientation of the spindle Tool Change Switch allowing a manual tool change Reference Position Switches and lights relating to setup of machine, from reference position Handle (MPG) Manual Pulse Generator (MPG), used for Axis Select and Handle Increment switches Tailstock Switch Tailstock and/or quill switch to manually position the tailstock Indexing Table Switch Manually indexes machine table during setup MDI Mode Manual Data Input mode Even if some features may not be listed, virtually all of those in the table are somewhat related to CNC program.

22 u Chapter 5 Handle SYSTEM FEATURES For setup purposes, each CNC machine has a rotary handle that can move one selected axis by as little as the least increment of the control system. The official Fanuc name for the handle is Manual Pulse Generator. Associated with the handle is Axis Select switch (often duplicated on the operation panel as well as on the handle) and the range of increment (that is the least increment X1, X10 and X100). The letter X in this case is the multiplier and stands for 'X times'.

All these cycles are designed for easier programming and faster changes at the machine. They are built in the control and cannot be changed. Programmer supplies the cutting values during program preparation by using an appropriate cycle call command. All processing is done automatically, by the CNC system. Of course, there will always be special programming projects that cannot use any cycles, at least not effectively, and have to be programmed manually or with the use of an external computer and CAM software.

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