Bruniana e Campanelliana - XV 2 2009

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John was based on Chapter 53 (On the Reception of Guests) of the Benedictine rule. Apart from the allusion in The City of the Sun (p. 83), Campanella specifically refers to the supremacy of the principle of hospitality even during war, see J. P. De Lucca, Ius gentium, in Enciclopedia bruniana e campanelliana, vol. ii, edited by E. Canone and G. Ernst (forthcoming).  This custom was retained even after the Knights’ arrival in Malta in 1530.  For a comprehensive discussion of these claims see E.

Calabria was such a place. But beyond the anxieties and tensions these immunities and privileges unavoidably caused due to their abuse and exploitation, the fact that the Order had been placed directly and exclusively under the sole authority of the pope gave it a distinctly universal nature which complemented the variety within its membership. A parallel may be drawn here with Campanella’s own ideal of political (and military) unity under the religious leadership of the pope, of which this Order of « religious soldiers » appeared as a microcosm.

Although the history of the Knights is littered with glaring examples of what many would rightly consider religious hypocrisy and travesty – a feature that is clearly not exclusive to the Order of St. John – the Hospitaller was not just a warrior by definition but also a member of a religious order that fell under the direct jurisdiction of the pope. The autonomy of the Order seems to have been a distinctive feature since its foundation. Besides enjoying the privileges of a canonically constituted religious order, such as immunity from secular government and civil proceedings, the Knights were also exempt from local ecclesiastical jurisdiction.

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