By Peter E. Davies, Anthony M. Thornborough
Few airplanes have remained in energetic provider so long as the B-52, that's slated to stick in operation throughout the flip of the century. initially designed as a long-range nuclear bomber, the B-52 has obvious carrier in Vietnam and the Gulf battle, the place its lengthy variety and large bomb load have been complemented by means of the power to deal with air-launched missiles. The authors offer numerous bills from B-52 pilots and insurance of this superb airplane's layout and carrying on with improvement. hunted photos aid record the Stratofortress' extraordinary occupation.
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Extra info for Boeing B-52 Stratofortress (Crowood Aviation Series)
26 Specific features of composite-material design in the matrix has a detrimental effect on strength in the case of layer longitudinal compression. e. its content by volume (the fibre properties and geometry have a small effect). To estimate the shear modulus, the following formula can be used : 1 + VF G12 = GM1 _ V F where GM is the matrix shear modulus and VF is the fibre volume fraction, which yields accuracy satisfactory for practical computations. Experimental investigations of strength properties of fibre composite materials in shear indicate that the strength in the case of shear in the reinforcement plane can be taken approximately equal to the matrix ultimate shear strength.
That the process of damage origination and development in composite materials based on a polymeric matrix differs radically from the fatigue failure of metal alloys. Damage is caused not by periodic structure loading but by mechanical impact effects during transportation, scheduled maintenance operations and flight operations, which result in chips, dents, separations, through-damage, etc. In some cases, such damage cannot be detected visually. It should be noted that, in the range of acting operating loads, damage growth is extremely slow.
To ensure their strength, it is necessary to use crossply materials. The orientation of unidirectional layers depends on the forces acting and stiffness requirements. As regards the composite, the maximum strength and stiffness characteristics in the direction of the main forces should be obtained, and the required strength and stiffness in the direction of secondary loads should be ensured. The investigations indicate that, to obtain the required results, there is no need to use a complex fibre arrangement with a large number of differently directed layers.