An introduction to the languages of the world by Anatole V. Lyovin

By Anatole V. Lyovin

Certain in scope, An creation to the Languages of the World introduces linguistics scholars to the range of world's languages. scholars will achieve familiarity with strategies comparable to sound switch, lexical borrowing, diglossia, and language diffusion, and the wealthy number of linguistic constitution in be aware order, morphological forms, grammatical family members, gender, inflection, and derivation. It bargains the chance to discover constructions of various and interesting languages regardless of no earlier acquaintance. A bankruptcy is dedicated to every of the world's continents, with in-depth analyses of consultant languages of Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania, and the United States, and separate chapters hide writing platforms and pidgins and creoles. each one bankruptcy includes routines and proposals for extra examining. New to this version are 11 unique maps in addition to sections on signal languages and language loss of life and revitalization. For larger clarity, uncomplicated language proof at the moment are prepared in tables, and language samples keep on with foreign criteria for phonetic transcription and word-by-word glossing.

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68 morphemes per word. Although the language has many complex words, like the four-​morpheme [ɪ-​lɑd͡ʒ-​ɪk-​əl], it also has many simpler words, which bring down the average. 00 morphemes per word. 72 morphemes per word. Other typological indices report analogous measures for specific types of morphemes. Morphemes may be roots, which carry core lexical meaning, or affixes – ​elements like prefixes or suffixes, which are best characterized in terms of their linguistic function. To continue our example with il-​log-​ic-​al [ɪ-​lɑd͡ʒ-​ɪk-ə​l], the morph [lɑd͡ʒ] is the root, meaning approximately ‘reasoning’; the other morphemes are affixes: [ɪ‑], which negates, [‑ɪk], which forms new nouns, and [‑əl], which forms adjectives.

An additional count he suggested was to separately report the average numbers of prefixes and suffixes per word. Greenberg’s results showed that Vietnamese has a fairly high compounding index, but its affix indices are all zero. Prefixes were relatively rare in the languages he looked at, with some languages showing no prefixes at all –​even Eskimo, which has an unusually large number of morphemes per word. An outlier is Swahili, which has a prefixation index three times as high as its suffixation index.

1 MORPHOLOGICAL TYPOLOGY Greenberg (1954) has one of the more useful adaptations of Humboldt’s morphological typology. Although the traditional typology introduced concepts that are still at the core of how most linguists think about morphological types, the terminology was vague and impressionistic. Greenberg broke the system down into its logical components and proposed objective measures, or indices, for each component. As a first step, we take a large, representative sample of a language, and break each of its words down into morphemes: the shortest strings of phonemes that have some meaning or function in the language.

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