By Bryan S. R. Green and Edward A. Johns (Auth.)
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Parsons, Structure and Process in Modern Societies, Free Press, 1961. G. Hillery, Villages, cities and total institutions, American Sociological Review, 28 (Oct. 1963), 779. 3 See E. Goffman, Asylums, New York, Doubleday, 1961. 2 54 AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY limited purposes. In the city co-operation is based upon contracts and membership of formal associations as well as upon familybased personal co-operation. Localization refers to territorial identity and spatial location. A total institution is characterized by a staff of "officials" which compels a localized population of inmates to behave in a closely regulated way.
E. available to all actors in a social system as a vehicle of meaning. 1 The products of human activity must therefore possess symbolic significance in a social system before they are included as part of a culture. The connection between this sociological definition of culture and humanist definitions of "high" culture is that both involve the use and creation of symbols. The main difference is that in "high" culture the process tends towards self-concious expertise and symbols become the product of skilled effort rather than the outgrowth of shared experiences in society.
1 G. Jaeger and P. Selznick, A normative theory of culture, American Sociological Review, 29 (Oct. 1964), 653. 42 AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY 2. Denotation, where the sign stands for something else in a specific but non-causal way. g. the word "table" stands for a whole class of objects with specific characteristics. 3. Connotation, where a word not only has a denotive meaning but evokes other associations and meanings also. The word "house" denotes a class of objects, but for a given person it may also connote security or warmth.