By Marcus Milwright
This advent to the archaeology of the Islamic global strains the historical past of the self-discipline from its earliest manifestations via to the current and evaluates the contribution made via archaeology to the certainty of key points of Islamic tradition. the writer argues that it really is crucial for the result of archaeological learn to be extra totally built-in into the broader old research of the Islamic global. His business enterprise of the e-book into large issues permits a spotlight on matters which are suitable throughout assorted areas and classes, and the wide geographical scope displays the focus of archaeological paintings within the Islamic international to the current day. (1/1/11)
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Islamic Archaeology (New Edinburgh Islamic Surveys)
The conquests continued west into North Africa, with a Muslim expeditionary force led by ‘Uqba ibn Nafi‘ which reached the Atlantic Ocean in 680 and with the fall of the key port of Carthage to the Arabs in 697. In 711 an army of Arabs and Berbers crossed the straits of Gibraltar and, later that year, inflicted a decisive defeat over the forces of the Visigothic king, Roderick. To the east the expansion continued into Central Asia, the city of Samarqand coming under Arab control after 710. Not all the campaigns were fought for the acquisition of new land, however; this crucial period of Islamic history was also marked by civil wars (fitna) in 656–61 and 683–92.
51 Silberman (1989); Vernoit (1997); Bozdogan and Neçipoglu (2007); Kohl, Kozelsky and Ben-Yehuda, eds (2007). 2 Early Islam and late antiquity There can be no doubt as to the momentous nature of the Arab conquests of the seventh and early eighth centuries. A vast territory stretching from Central Asia in the east to the Iberian peninsula in the west came under the dominion of the Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs. The Arabian peninsula was largely under the control of the Prophet Muhammad before his death in 632, and virtually all of the Byzantine territories of Greater Syria and Egypt were captured by the early 640s.
At the same time, there was a massive expansion in church building, even modest settlements boasting several places of worship (chapter 6). 13 These significant changes to the physical layout of the cities of the Middle East and North Africa were evidently shaped by numerous socio-cultural and economic factors. Most obvious in the regions of the Byzantine Empire was the increasing dominance of the church in the lives of city dwellers. This was manifested not merely in the erection of places of worship, but also in the closing of pagan temples and the eradication of theatrical performance as a form of public entertainment.