By T. M. Flynn, B. W. Birmingham (auth.), K. D. Timmerhaus (eds.)
Invited Papers.- Cryogenics and nationwide Goals.- A evaluate of the potential for Liquid-Methane gas for Supersonic Transports.- Slush and Subcooled Propellants for Lunar and Interplanetary Missions.- Thermodynamic Properties.- Equilibrium Gas-Phase Compositions of Ethane and Ethylene in Binary combinations with Helium and Neon lower than 150°K and a Correlation for Deviations from the Geometric suggest Combining Rule.- The Kinetics of Adsorption of Methane and Nitrogen from Hydrogen Gas.- Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of country for Methane at Cryogenic Conditions.- a brand new Calorimeter for the actual selection of the Enthalpy of Pressurized Fluids right down to 160°R.- homes of Materials.- Simultaneous size of Young’s Modulus and Shear Modulus at Low Temperatures.- Tensile houses and Notch durability of Groove Welds in Wrought and forged Aluminum Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures.- Low-Temperature Mechanical homes of Welded and Brazed Copper.- Superconductivity.- A excessive box Magnet Combining Superconductors with Water-Cooled Conductors.- huge Superconducting Baseball Magnet.- trying out Composite Superconductor for the LRL Baseball Magnet.- temporary reaction and balance Limits of Superconducting Composite twine Following a Flux Jump.- Flux-Flow experiences and balance standards of Nb-Ti Strips.- The Transition to Current-Sharing in Composite Conductors.- balance of Internally Cooled Superconductors.- results of Nucleate Cooling Limits at the functionality of Small Ti-Nb Solenoids.- warmth Transfer.- Non-Boiling and movie Boiling warmth move to a Saturated bathtub of Liquid Helium.- Boiling warmth move and strain Drop of Liquid Helium-I less than pressured circulate in a Helically Coiled Tube.- Nucleate Boiling warmth move from an Oscillating Sphere in Liquid Nitrogen.- A Miniature warmth Exchanger for Simultaneous Para-Orthohydrogen Conversion and warmth Transfer.- be aware on warmth Exchanger layout for Cryogenic Propellant Tanks.- A Compact Perforated-Plate warmth Exchanger.- Insulation.- Analytical types for Airborne-Cryogenic-Insulation Thermal Performance.- review of an Externally Insulated Spacecraft Dewar.- Experimental selection of Thermal lodging Coefficients.- Thermal Diffusivity of Powder Insulation.- Predictions of the whole Emissivity of Metals at Cryogenic Temperatures.- Radiative features of Cryodeposits for Room Temperature Black physique Radiation.- Fluid Dynamics.- Thermal Stratification in Closed Cryogenic Containers.- Approximate Criterion for Prediction of stream Oscillations in Supercritical Fluid warmth Exchangers.- The interplay of keep an eye on Valves with Oscillations Generated in a wide Water to Hydrogen warmth Exchanger.- Cavitation in Liquid Cryogens.- An research of the consequences of Spatial, Thermal, and pace Inhomogeneities on Two-Phase, unmarried part Cryogenic Choked Flow.- Two-Phase (Liquid-Vapor), Mass-Limiting circulation with Hydrogen and Nitrogen.- Instrumentation.- Cryogenic movement study Facility of the nationwide Bureau of Standards.- Prelaunch Slush Hydrogen Loading components Affecting Instrumentation and Control.- Use of Capacitance point Gauging for Prelaunch Loading of Slush Hydrogen.- development on Cryogenic Thermocouples.- Fluid section and Temperature size with a unmarried Sensor.- lights in Cryogenic and Noncryogenic Fluids.- Refrigeration Systems.- An research of the Stirling-Cycle Refrigerator.- Steady-State Operation of the Idealized Vuilleumier Refrigerator.- Compact Cryogenic Thermal Regenerator Performance.- loose Displacer Refrigeration.- Dynamical results of the Rhombic force for Miniature Cooling Engines.- improvement of a realistic Thermodynamic Cycle for a Space-Borne Hydrogen Reliquefier.- A 3.6°K Reciprocating Refrigerator.- improvement of Novel fuel Bearing Supported Cryogenic enlargement Turbines.- Miniature Cryogenic fridge Turboalternators.- keep an eye on procedure for Temperatures and Liquid point among 4.2° and 1°K.- Closed-Cycle fridges for Hydrogen Targets.- Cryogenic Systems.- Solidified Oxygen for inhaling Space.- Slush Hydrogen Pumping features utilizing a Centrifugal-Type Pump.- try result of a Zero-Gravity Cryogenic section Separator.- Hydrogen Peroxide Motor Exhaust Heating to parts at Cryogenic Temperatures within the Vacuum of Space.- research of Propagation mess ups of versatile Linear formed fees at Cryogenic Temperatures.- The habit of standard Liquid Hydrogen aim platforms lower than Simulated Failure Modes.
Read Online or Download Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: Proceedings of the 1968 Cryogenic Engineering Conference Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio August 19–21, 1968 PDF
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Extra info for Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: Proceedings of the 1968 Cryogenic Engineering Conference Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio August 19–21, 1968
W. Winstead Examples of mission impact study results are presented in the following paragraphs for chemical and nuclear propulsion, and life support systems. -hr coast, propels the spacecraft into a lunar trajectory. During orbital coast approximately 3000 Ib hydrogen boiloff is vented propulsively providing a continuous thrust to maintain propellant control. The use of subcooled liquid hydrogen was studied early in the Apollo program (1965) as an alternate to continuous venting . It was concluded that 10° subcooling would permit nonvented orbital storage, resulting in approximately 1200-lb payload advantage.
32]. Studies indicate that the most effective means of mixing cryogens is with axial jet pumps submerged in the cryogen and that 10 W or less fluid power from conventional pumps, driven by dc motors, are optimum. The combined effects of storage-system design and slush utilization are indicated by the evaluation of an earth-orbit launch mission, which shows that the payload loss due to tank venting may be redueed from 25,0001b for a conventional venting scheme and 1 atm hydrogen to several hundred pounds by using mixed triple-point hydrogen.
S lush Hydrogen (Avg. Solid Fraction. 331 o o 100 200 VOlumetrie Flow Rate, gpm 300 Fig. 7. Performance of centrifugal pump. shaped agglomerates. The small nucleation centers or subparticles enlarge with age and the loose agglomerates fill in with solid to form a higher density, more rounded, uniform particle. The greatest number of these particles are 3 mm or less in diameter. Laboratory experiments have shown that the solid-fraction of slush mixtures increases due to the apparent density change from approximately 30% to a maximum of 60% during the aging process.