By Ive Marx
Social scientists, politicians, and economists have lately been all in favour of the concept that the complicated welfare states of Europe face a “New Social Question.” The middle notion is that the transition from an business to a postindustrial atmosphere has introduced with it a complete new set of social hazards, constraints, and trade-offs, which necessitate radical recalibration of social defense platforms. a brand new Social query? analyzes that question intensive, with specific recognition to the matter of source of revenue safeguard and the problems dealing with Bismarckian welfare states. it will likely be valuable analyzing for someone attracted to realizing the way forward for ecu social policy.About the AuthorIve Marx is examine fellow on the Centre for Social coverage on the college of Antwerp, Belgium. [C:\Users\Microsoft\Documents\Calibre Library]
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Additional info for A New Social Question?: On Minimum Income Protection in the Postindustrial Era
In fact, some parts of the oecd area experienced the longest period of sustained economic expansion since the Second World War during this period. In 1999, the last year for which data is presented, a number of countries were on the verge of attaining their lowest unemployment rate in three decades. That dependency rates remained high during the 1990s can be interpreted as evidence that something has changed structurally. The picture here is in fact consistent with the view that important sections of the working-age population have become in effect ‘economically redundant’.
This is due to the fact that the standard of living has risen predominantly through upskilling. There are now considerably more highly skilled people than there were 20 years ago, and considerably fewer low-skilled. 7 Living standard by educational quartile, 1976-1997. Level in 1997 (1997 euros) and 1976-1997 percentage point diﬀerence 25-64 years 25-44 years 1997 1976-1997 1997 1976-1997 Ed. 7 Ed. 4 Source: Belgian Socio-Economic Panel Survey. 8 Poverty rate by educational quartile, 1976-1997.
Unlike in the low-pay literature, the mean is used more often than the median, though there are arguments in favour of each: the most common practice is to use 50 per cent of mean household income, adjusted for household size and composition using equivalence scales. 3 to each child (commonly known as the ‘modified oecd scale’). The precise equivalence scales employed may have a significant impact on the size and composition of the group falling below the poverty line (Buhman et al. 1988, Coulter, Cowell and Jenkins 1992), and no method of deriving such scales commands general support.