By Bruno Lussato (auth.)
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Additional info for A Critical Introduction to Organisation Theory
They may present the same external physical characteristics, and cost 14 A Critical Introduction to Organisation Theory the same; but one will prove defective and cause expense and loss of reputation to its maker or supplier, while another will behave normally. What is more, even in a case of physical identity (which is impossible), a client will want the first of the objects and not the second for reasons connected with their presentation, the lighting ... or simply whim or superstition! 2 Theoreticallanguage At the level of theoretical reflection, there has developed a language corresponding to the concepts taken from observation and first-hand experience.
3. Staffing: a function consisting of placing people in the framework of the organisation. It includes the selection, the evaluation and the training of personnel. 4. Direction: this is a function of directing behaviour, of supervison and orientation of people (cf. Keith Davis). 5. Control (managerial): a function consisting of making sure plans are carried out, by measuring and correcting the activities of subordinates according to the objectives. Although 1 have emphasised the arbitrary nature of classifications, they nevertheless make it possible to pick out the useful concepts found in both the classic and the modern literature: staffing, planning or Problems of Terminology 29 organisation for example.
This is the multiple environment built up by the organisation: each organ having to give a specific response directly or indirectly to an element of the environment. The organs themselves are subdivided into instrumental roles according to the demands of the environment and to the internal problems which these demands create for the organism. This very broad definition has been chosen because it has been concluded that it is no longer possible to separate spatial structures from Problems of Terminology 31 temporal structures, and that the establishment of a plan calls for operations of comparison and reasoned evaluation, analogous to those required for the publication of that plan.